Environmental Legal Services                                                                                                    



                                                              CO-Processing FCC Unit   -  Crude Palm Oil


Co-Processing refers to the simultaneous trasformation of biogenic feedstocks and intermediate petroleum distillates such as vacuum gas oil (VGO) in existing petroleum refinery process units to produce renewable hydrocarbon fuels. Co-Processing has recently received attention due its potential to provide low carbon renewable fuels at economically competitive prices by utilizing existing refining, transport and storage infrastructure. Several entities including national labs and universities are involved in co-processing research and development, and a few commercial refiners are exploring both pilot and commercial production.

Current research is mostly directed at the potential of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrocracking/hydrotreating units for co-processing. 

Research also demonstrates that it is possible to improve renewable gasoline yields to levesl comparable to that of 100% VGO, if raw pyrolysis oil is upgraded to hydrodeoxygenated oil (HDO) and then co-processed with VGO. A study by Fogassy et al. simulating FCC Fuid Cat Cracker Unit conditions found that co-processing 20 percent HDO with 80% VGO resulted in gasoline yields comparable to that of the conventional FCC feedstock (VGO).


                                                                                                             PILOT Plant 

Pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process that occurs at moderate temperature in which the biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen or air to produce a mixture of condensable liquid, gases and char. One of biomass resources is palm oil shell. This waste abundant in Riau about 700.5 ton/day. The shell compositions are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. That compounds can be cracked into bio-oil. The bio-oil is a high density oxygenated liquid that can be used as a substitute for liquid fossil fuels in some applications. It can be burned in diesel engine, turbines or boilers, though futher work is still required to demonstrate log term reliability. It may also be used for the production of speciality chemical, currently mainly flavourings. Renewable resins and slow release fertilisers are potential applications. The objective of research to study the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 0 C) to yield of bio-oil and to determine physical and chemical properties. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The maximum yield was obtained 44.6% at 450 0 C. The physical properties of bio-oil were heating value (689.081 cal/gr), density (1.01 gr/ml) and viscosity (14.17 cSt). Composition of bio-oil product contains carbamic acid (18.51%), methyl acetate (5.12%), acetic acid (63.70%), 2-propanone (5.79%), propanoic acid (1.91%), 2-butanone (1.10%) and phenol (3.87%).

Pyrolysis oil (Palm Oil) and VGO are separately injected in the riser of the reactor at different heights, to increase thermal cracking and prevent undesirable reactions.